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Disposable N95 Face Mask

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Disposable Medical Face Mask

Disposable Medical Face Mask

Disposable Medical Mask Material: NonWoven Fabric+Meltbl

Disposable KN95 Face Mask

Disposable KN95 Face Mask

Disposable N95 Mask Material: 5 ply Non-woven fabric Col

Infrared Forehead Thermometer

Infrared Forehead Thermometer

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Disposable Isolation Coveralls

Disposable Isolation Coveralls

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Disposable Medical Gloves

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How Do Masks Protect Us against Airborne Diseases Ⅱ

The Respiratory Route of Transmission

A respiratory pathogen may be transmitted via three routes—contact, droplet, and airborne spread [20]. Contact transmission may be direct (i.e., transfer of virus via contaminated hands) or indirect (i.e., via fomites).

Airborne spread occurs with pathogens found in exhaled  μm in diameter. These particles remain afloat for some time and are able to travel long distances. Respiratory viruses accepted as being capable of spread via the airborne route include measles and varicella zoster (chickenpox). These viruses have a large , a feature thought to characterise spread by the airborne route. Interestingly, influenza, coronavirus, and rhinovirus RNA, generally thought to be transmitted by the droplet route, can be found in exhaled particles smaller or larger than 5 μm.

Further, viable influenza is present in particles smaller than 5 μm. Hence, even viruses thought to be transmitted primarily by the respiratory droplet route may have the potential for airborne spread. Concern that SARS-CoV-2 may spread by the airborne route rose when it was shown to be viable for 3 hours in a drum that artificially kept particles afloat for several hours.

Mechanistic Effect of Wearing a Mask

Masks have generally shown an effect in reducing virus emission from infected patients. The surgical mask was tested for its ability to block the release of various viruses by studying the amount of virus present in the exhaled breath of patients. The investigators were able to collect particles separated by size (> or<5 μm).

A significant drop in coronaviruses in both larger and smaller particles was observed with the mask on. The mask reduced influenza viruses found in larger but not smaller particles. After wearing a mask, no coronavirus was detected in all 11 patients, while influenza was detected in 1 patient’s respiratory particles (out of 27). The mask did not lower rhinovirus counts in larger or smaller particles. This suggests that surgical face masks can reduce the release of coronavirus and influenza from an infected person. In an earlier study for influenza, participants were induced to cough, and with both surgical masks and N95 masks, there was no influenza that could be detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 9 infected patients.

When the exhaled influenza virus was separated into the fractions based on size, it was found that surgical masks were highly effective at removing influenza from the larger coarse fraction (≥5 μm) but less effective from the fraction with smaller particles.

Advantages and Caveats of Wearing Masks

Mask usage, in addition to other nonpharmaceutical interventions, can be an effective containment measure in an epidemic. Face masks can prevent dispersal of droplets when infected persons talk, sing, cough, or sneeze. The rate of emission of particles correlates with voice loudness during speech or other vocal activities.

A physical obstruction that prevents the wearer from touching the face, a mask may lead to better hand hygiene. The reverse is also true—an increased tendency for wearers to touch their faces, such as when adjusting their masks. Even with the right mask, wearers can still be infected if droplets enter via the eyes, thus highlighting the importance of additional protection.

Masks also reduce the risk of environmental contamination by respiratory droplets. In reality, usage by each individual varies. The mask may not fully cover the mouth and nose, or it may be used and reused too frequently. These can mean huge variations in mask performance outcomes.

In addition, wearers should avoid touching their faces and the external surface of their masks. Hand hygiene also varies from person to person. Hence, mask usage must be complemented by other behavioral changes for effective infection prevention.

Finally, the universal use of face masks prevents discrimination of individuals who wear masks when unwell because everybody is wearing a mask. Universal mask-wearing can create new social norms, motivating individuals to wear masks at the initial onset of symptoms without fear of being stigmatized. The unintentional infection of healthy individuals by asymptomatic and presymptomatic persons can be avoided. Masks are visible indicators of crisis mode, which can prompt behavioral changes such as social distancing and frequent handwashing.

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Disposable Medical Face Mask

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Disposable N95 Face Mask

Disposable N95 Face Mask

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